The Russian Federation, The Russia (European countries) Satellite maps

Country: Russia, or Russia (The Russian Federation, The Russia)Flag: a horizontal rectangle, the length and width ratio is about 3:2.Flag of three parallel and connected to the same horizontal rectangle formed, from top to bottom were white, blue and red color.Russia has a vast territory and land-boreal, temperate and boreal Asia three climatic zones, with three parallel rectangular cross-linked, said Russia's geographical position on this characteristic.White snow throughout the year on behalf of the vast boreal the natural landscape; representatives of both the blue-cold climate zones, symbol of Russia's rich underground deposits and forests, water and other natural resources; temperate red is a sign, symbol of Russia's long history and The contribution to human civilization.White, blue and red color from the flag in 1697 during the reign Bidedadi used red, white and blue tri-color flag, red, white and blue colour known as the pan-Slavic colors.1917 October Revolution cancelled after the victory of three-colored flag.In 1920 the Soviet Government has adopted a new national flag, red, blue two-color composition, to the left side of the vertical blue, red flag right side of the plane has a cross-Wu Jiaoxing and the hammer and sickle with.After the flag of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic of the national flag.1922 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics after the establishment of the national flag logo has been modified, as a red flag, the top-left corner of a golden Wu Jiaoxing, sickle and hammer logo.1991 breakup of the Soviet Union, the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic of the Russian Federation changed the name, followed by white, blue, red flag for the three-color flag.National Emblem: In order to shield logo.November 30, 1993, Russia decided to adopt the October Revolution before Ivan Leidi times to double-headed eagle as the national emblem logo: a red shield face a golden double-headed eagle, eagle heads of the three is Bidedadi Crown, Yingzhao抓着symbol of imperial power and the baton silky.Eagle is a small shield-shaped front, above a knight and a white horse.Double-headed eagle origin can be traced back to 15th century AD.Double-headed eagle was originally a Byzantine Constantine I of the emblem.The Byzantine Empire had two across the Eurasian continent, it looked at a Western, Eastern Looking at the other end, a symbol of the unity between the two mainland as well as the nation's joint.In 1453, has been brilliant at the Byzantine Empire by the Ottoman Turkish empire collapse, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI who died heroically.His two brothers, a heel in the Ottoman Empire, and the other with two sons and daughter Suofeiyapa out Aoluo Ge fled to Rome.Later, two children and a woman in his father after the death of the pope was dependent adult.At that time, the Roman politicians in order to help Russia's military forces to resist the Turks, then by marriage to Sofia Xupei way to the Grand Prince of Moscow Ivan III.Sofia thus carrying the authority of the Byzantine Empire double-headed eagle emblem to Russia.Sofia assist Fujun Ivan III, Russia's land is basically the joint together, forming a vast territory of the reunification of the country.1497, the double-headed eagle as a national emblem first appeared in Russia's national seal, until 1918.November 30th, 1993, this symbol of Russian national unity and reunification of the double-headed eagle and "fly" to return to Russia's national emblem on.End of the 20th century, the State Duma from the legal determination of the double-headed eagle is Russia's national symbol.National Anthem: Qu: Alexandrov / words: MikhalkovThe lyrics to this effect:"Russia, our sacred motherland,Russia, our beloved homeland.A strong will and great gloryYou Gengu the same treasure!Proud of it, we have freedom of the motherland,National Union of the brothers from generation to generation,Fathers empower people with wisdom!Proud of it, the motherland!We are proud of you!From the sea to the south of the Arctic territoryEverywhere is our forests and fields.You unique!God bless you is the only fertile soil!Proud of it, we have freedom of the motherland,National Union of the brothers from generation to generation,Fathers empower people with wisdom!Proud of it, the motherland!We are proud of you!Unlimited ideal state, the vast living spaceTime for us to open up the future.Loyalty to the motherland to give us strength.Past, present and forever!Proud of it, we have freedom of the motherland,National Union of the brothers from generation to generation,Fathers empower people with wisdom!Proud of it, the motherland!We are proud of you!"Defenders of the Homeland: February 23 (the Soviet Army Day)Great Patriotic War Victory Day: May 9Adoption of the Declaration on national sovereignty (National Day): June 12Harmonious reconciliation, the October Revolution Day, the military honor: November 7 (former October Revolution Day)>>Constitution Day: December 12IAF Day: April 12 (1962 Soviet Union to commemorate the Gagarin the first space voyage may be)National political figures: President Vladimir Putin (Vladimir Putin), 1999年on 31 December of the Russian president, in March 2004 re-elected president; Federation Council (upper house of parliament) Chairman Sergei Mironov ( Sergei Mironov), 2001年12月office, in January 2003 reelection as the State Duma (lower house) Chairman Boris Gryzlov (Boris Gryzlov), 2003年12 he was elected; Prime Minister 米哈伊尔弗拉De Kefu (Mikhail Fradkov), 2004年5 Hadley; Security Council Secretary 伊戈尔伊万诺夫 (Igor Ivanov), 2004年3月office; Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov (Sergei Lavrov), 2004 In March representation.Population: 140 million (as at April 2003).There are over 130 nationalities, including Russians accounted for 82.95 percent, mainly ethnic minorities are Tatars, Ukraine, Chuvash, Bashkir, Belarus, Moldova, German, Udmurtiya, Armenia, A Waer , Mali, Kazakhstan, Ossetians, Buryat, Yakutia, Kabardino, Jewish, Komi, Lezgin root, the Meknès, Ingushetia, Tyva, and so on.Extremely uneven distribution of population, the western developed regions 52-77 people per square kilometer, up to 261 individual places, while the Northeast tundra with less than one.Caucasus ethnic composition of the most complex, about 40 people in this life.Many residents believe the Orthodox, followed by Islam.Russian throughout the territory of the Russian Federation is the official language, the provisions of the Republic have the right to their own national language, and in the territory of the Republic can be used in conjunction with the Russian.Main ethnic minorities has its own language and text.Mainly to the Orthodox religion, followed by Islam.Physical Geography: 17075400 square kilometers (the territory of the former Soviet Union accounted for 76 per cent), ranking first in the world.Located in the northern part of Eastern Europe and Asia, most of its European territory in Eastern Europe is plain.Arctic Ocean north and east Bin Pacific, west Atlantic.Things up to 9,000 kilometers, north and south of the width to 4,000 kilometers.Land north-west neighbours Norway, Finland, west of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine is the south-west, south Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, south-east of China, Mongolia and North Korea.East and across the sea from Japan and the United States.A coastline of 33,807 kilometers.Most areas in the north temperate climate and diverse, mainly to continental climate.Generally larger temperature difference, in January the average temperature is -1 ℃ to -37 ℃, 7 monthly average temperature of 11 ℃ to 27 ℃.Average annual precipitation is 150-1000 mm.Capital: Moscow (Moscow), a population of about 8.5 million (as at December 2002).May 16, 1995 and Beijing became sister cities.Administrative Division: from 88 federal main components: (1) 21 Republic: Adygea (Adygeya), the Altai Republic, the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Buryat Republic, the Republic of Dagestan, India Ancient even Republic, Kabardino - Balkaria Republic, the Republic of Kalmykia -哈利姆格坦Geqi, Karachayevo - Circassian Republic, the Republic of Karelia, Komi Republic, Mari El, Moldavian Republic, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), North Ossetia Republic, the Republic of Tatarstan, (Tatarstan,), Tuva Republic, Udmurt Republic, the Republic of Khakasiya, the Republic of Chechnya, Chu Washi Republic - the Republic of cavas (2) 7 Territory: the Altai Territory, Krasnodar Territory, Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Primorsky Territory Stavropol Krai, h Luofusike Krai, Perm Territory (3) 48 states: Amur region, Arkhangelsk, and Astrakhan state, Belgorodskaya oblast, Bryansk, and Vladislav Vladimir states, in Volgograd, Vologodskaya oblast, Voronezh State, in Ivanovo, in Irkutsk, Kaliningrad state, Kaluga state, in Kamchatka, Kemai Mr LAW Yuk-state, the Kirov state, Kostroma, and Kurgan state, the state Kursk, Leningrad Oblast, in Lipetsk, in Magadan, Moscow region, Murmansk region, under诺夫Montenegro, Texas, in Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, and Orenburg State, Orlovskaya, and Ben oblast, in Pskov, in Rostov, Ryazan State, Samar In Rafah, in Saratov, in Sakhalin, in Sverdlovsk, in Smolensk, Tambov, and Tver, and Tomsk State, Tula State, Minnesota autumn, Ukraine Ulyanovsk state, Chelyabinsk state, in Chita, Yaroslavl, (4) the two municipalities Federation: Moscow, St. Petersburg (5) an autonomous region: the Jewish Autonomous Region, (6) 9 Ethnic autonomous regions: A Jiabu Li Yate ethnic autonomous regions, autonomous regions Keliyake national, ethnic Nenets autonomous region, Taymyrskiy (Dolgano - Nenets) ethnic autonomous regions, Usti - Ordynski Umbria Special ethnic autonomous region, Khanty-Mansiyskiy avtonomniy okrug, Chukchi ethnic autonomous regions, Evenk ethnic autonomous region, Yamalo - Nenets ethnic autonomous regions.Russia will merge in two areasIn Moscow on the river Klaskin that Luzhski BridgeA brief history: the ancestors of the Russian people for the East Slavs Ross clan.Year 15 end of the century, Ivan III Emirates established a centralized state - the Grand Duchy of Moscow.1547, Ivan IV, the self-styled "tsar", the country known as Russia.16-17 century, the Volga River basin, the Urals and Siberia all ethnic groups have joined Russia, making it a multi-ethnic country.17 mid-century Ukraine and Russia into a unified country.August 1689 Peter the First official Qinzheng.After the 1700-1721 war in the north, Russia to the Baltic Sea has been to the sea, landlocked country into Russia from the coastal State.It rout of the 17th century Poland and Sweden Feng Jianzhu invasion.Russia eliminated the 1812 invasion of Napoleon's army.December 1825 aristocratic revolutionaries held in St. Petersburg, the intifada (uprising in December party member), was suppressed.February 1861 Russia the right to abolish agricultural system.In 1898 the establishment of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (formerly Communist Party of the Soviet Union), in which, under the leadership of the Russian worker and peasant masses in 1905 after the Russian Revolution and the first time in February 1917 overthrow of the bourgeois democratic revolution Romanov dynasty ( February Revolution), on November 7, 1917 October Socialist Revolution has achieved a great victory, the establishment of the world's first socialist country.November 7, 1917 (the Russian calendar October 25) the establishment of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic.Republic set up soon, after three years of arduous domestic war, crushed the 14 countries of the imperialist armed intervention capitalists and landlords of armed rebellion, and defend the Soviet regime.December 30, 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was officially established, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine, Belarus and the Transcaucasian Federation (including Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia) to join together.June 12, 1990, the Russian Federation's National People's Congress passed the first "Declaration of the Russian Federation national sovereignty."December 21, 1991, the former Soviet Union 11 leaders of the Republic of Kazakhstan capital of Almaty in the decision, the former Soviet Union in the UN Security Council seats by the Russian succession.December 25, the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic of the Supreme Soviet decided to officially change the name of the country, "Russian Federation" (Russia).April 16, 1992, the Russian decision of the 6th NPC session will be the name of "Russia", thus restoring the history of the name on the 17th, the final decision on the use of two equal status of the official name "Russia" and " Russia. "St. PetersburgPolitics: December 12, 1993, the Russian Federation held the referendum, adopted after the independence of Russia's first constitution.In December 25, the new Constitution came into effect.The implementation of the Constitution established a presidential system of the Russian Federation national institutions.Constitution, the President of the Russian Federation is the head of state, is the Constitution of the Russian Federation, and the rights of citizens and the protection of freedom; President of the Russian Federation by the Constitution and federal law countries decided to domestic and foreign policies; President Appoints Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and ministries Minister of the Federal Government; president is the country's armed forces supreme commander and led the National Security Council; President has the right to dissolve parliament and the Council only charges the President guilty of the offence of treason or other serious crimes and only after confirmation by the Supreme Court impeachment of the president.According to the Constitution, the Russian Federation Council is the representative of the Russian Federation and the legislature.By the Federal Assembly of the Federation Council (upper house) and the State Duma (lower house) consists of two houses.Russia's Federation Council from each of the main factions consist of two representatives: one from a national representative bodies, one from the implementation of national authority, whose primary function is the approval of federal law, the Federation border changes, and the President on the state of war The state of emergency in order to decide outside the military, the presidential election and impeachment, the relationship between central and local issues.The State Duma is Russia's legislature, from 450 representatives, elected every four years, of which half of the seats from the 225 election districts elect a representative to produce, and the other half of the seats in the election by more than five votes % Of the campaign the number of political parties according to the distribution of votes.According to the Russian Constitution, without any five percent of votes across the "mark" the parties can not be involved in the distribution of seats in the party election, but its status as an independent candidate in the constituency elected representatives have no right in the State Duma in separate Members of Mission.The main duties of the State Duma is responsible for drafting and formulating a national law, to consider President of the Government's decision to appoint the president and confidence.Under the State Duma International Affairs Committee, Security Committee, the National Defense Commission, the Legislative Commission, the Economic Policy Committee, the Ethnic Affairs Commission, over 20 Commission.(State Duma was founded in 1906, the era of tsarist Russia is the elected legislature, in March 1917 was dissolved in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia in December 1993 elected the first session of the State Duma.) However, the State Duma on the decision to initiate proceedings and the Federal Commission on lifting president's decision to go through parliament two-thirds vote by all Members, but by not less than one-third of the State Duma's proposal .Constitution, the Government of the Russian Federation is the Russian Federation executive power bodies.The federal government by the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and federal ministers.The Constitution also provides that each Federation (Republic, Krai, state, autonomous prefectures and autonomous regions) the right to equal status.The status of the Russian Federation only in the Russian Federation and the Russian Federation under the federal constitution to be changed after mutual consultation.Russian presidential election system the previous Russian presidential electionsTo participate in the May 9 Great Patriotic War Victory Day parade in the Russian military trainingJudiciary: The Russian Federation judiciary mainly the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Supreme Court of Arbitration and the overall federal prosecutors.Does not allow the establishment of the Special Court.The Federal Constitutional Court of the State Duma and Federation Council's legal, decision, the Federal President of the order, other federal agencies in the paper, the Republic's Constitution, the main federal laws, statutes and other laws and regulations, federal and international treaties within the treaty is consistent with federal The Constitution and the establishment of social organizations and activities in line with the Constitution to decide cases.The Federal Constitutional Court also on the federal organs of state power between federal organs of state power and federal main organs of state power between the federal and state authorities the main dispute between the authority to make a ruling.Federal Supreme Court is civil, criminal, administrative and other cases, the highest judicial organ.According to federal law that the court proceedings on the activities of judicial supervision, judicial and practical problems to explain.Federal Supreme Court of Arbitration for economic disputes and arbitration court ruling in other cases to the highest judicial organ.According to federal law that the Court of Arbitration proceedings on the activities of judicial supervision, judicial and practical problems to explain.Federal prosecutors in the investigation of criminal cases involving the legality of monitoring, support the Court's indictment, to safeguard national interests and the rights and freedoms of citizens and to the courts, on state organs, local self-government bodies and public officers of the offence to the Court Raised objections.Procuratorate system implemented centralized and unified leadership structure.Federation Council appointed by presidential nomination of the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Supreme Court and the Federal Supreme Arbitration Court judges and the Federal Attorney-General.Economy: very rich in natural resources, species, reserves, a high degree of self-sufficiency.Proved oil reserves of 6.5 billion tons, of the world's proven reserves of 12-13%.Forests cover 867 million hectares, accounting for land area of 50.7 percent, ranking first in the world.Timber reserves 80.7 billion cubic meters.Has proven natural gas reserves to 48 trillion cubic meters, the world's total proven reserves of 1 / 3 strong, ranking first in the world.Water resources 4270 cubic km / year, ranking second in the world.2000 nuclear power generation capacity of 131 billion kilowatt / hour.Nuclear power accounted for 10% of Russia.Coal reserves of 200 billion tons, ranking second in the world.Al reserves ranking second in the world, iron reserves rank first in the world, uranium reserves in the world seventh largest gold reserves in the world fourth to fifth place.Strong industrial base, departments, complete with machinery, iron and steel, metallurgy, oil, gas, coal, forest-based industries and chemical, textile, food, timber and timber processing industry is also more developed.Both agriculture and animal husbandry, the main crops are wheat, barley, oats, corn, rice and beans.Economic crops to flax, sunflower and sugar beet-based.Livestock mainly cattle, sheep, pig farming industry.Main exports are oil, gas, electricity, coal, machinery and equipment, black and non-ferrous metals, the main import commodities are machinery and equipment, food, chemical products, and so on.Russia's 2005 gross domestic product reached 765.8 billion U.S. dollars, and in 1999 compared with actual growth of 50 percent.Russia's Yukos oil companyCurrency: rubles>>Dressed in military uniform during World War II Soviet of the Russian soldiersMilitary: Russia's armed forces mainly by the Army, Air Force, the three armed services and strategic missile troops, and space force, airborne force composed of three arms.The number of soldiers in the armed forces to 1.134 million people.In addition to the regular army, the armed forces, including border, the House, security, communications, the Ministry of Railways and the Civil Defence Force.The armed forces by the parliament, the president, the constitutional provisions on the competence of the common command, the President is the supreme commander of the armed forces of the military task is to resist foreign aggression and to Russia's international obligations; national army of not more than 1% of the total population; Implementation of the contract soldiers and two compulsory military service system, the service period are: Fleet sailor for two years, other soldiers one and a half years, highly educated, such as one year.Russian Navy Pacific Fleet, Northern Fleet, Baltic Fleet, Black Sea Fleet and Caspian Sea Fleet, an independent district.Russian Navy introducing new development planNews: Major newspapers are as follows: "Russia", founded in 1991, hosted by the Government of "Red Star", founded in 1924, the Department of Defense Office; "Labor", founded in 1921, the independent Federation of Trade Unions to do; "independent ", Founded in 1991;" News ", published in 1917;" businessman "," Pravda ", founded in 1912;" Today ", founded in 1993," Soviet Russia ", founded in 1956;" Workers Forum ", industrialists and entrepreneurs Union and the Independent Federation of Trade Unions to do," Komsomolskaya Pravda ", founded in 1925," Moscow News "magazine, founded in 1930;" Literature ", founded in 1830, reopened in 1929 , The Freedom Forum writers do, "summed up" magazines, circulation of 85,000 copies; "Spark" magazine, founded in 1923; "new era" magazine, founded in 1943; "regime" magazine; "profile" magazine "Economy and life "Magazine, founded in 1918.ITAR - TASS that Russia's state news agency, and its predecessor is in the January 23, 1992 the establishment of the Russian, January 30, 1992 formally known as the ITAR - TASS.RIA-Novosti News Agency, referred to RIA-Novosti news agency, is one of Russia's two main state news agency, was established in 1961, its predecessor, the Soviet news agency.1993 was identified as a national news agency, ITAR and the status - the same agency, the broad scope of business.Interfax was founded in January 1990, the private sector.Major radio stations are: the first radio station (the former Soviet Union Central Broadcasting Station), the Voice of Russia (private), the Russian radio station (state), "youth" radio, "Lighthouse" Radio Moscow "echo" radio, and so on.Major TV stations: Russia's state broadcasting company (Yiming Russian television, national television), Public Television (formerly the Soviet Union Central Television, the state-controlled), the independent television station (private), the Sixth Television (private), the television center in Moscow ( Moscow).Russian poet Pushkin House in the studyCulture: Russian territory across the two continents, naturally the East-West fusion of two cultures.Russia attaches importance to developing cultural undertakings and published a large number of books and newspapers, the establishment of a number of libraries, museums, cultural centers, clubs and other mass cultural facilities.Russia has also attached great importance to the museum treasures and historic buildings of heritage protection, expansion and a lot of new museums.Russia's museums can be divided into the professional revolution Museum of History, the Museum of History, Art Museum, professional and other museums and other museums.Well-known large-scale revolution in the Central Museum of the Russian Revolution Museum, National Museum of History, the Kremlin Museum, the Central Naval Museum.Moscow Museum of Art is the larger quarter Ya Kefu out by national painting galleries.Russian literature goes back to ancient times, famous in the world, a Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Belinskiy, Tuo Andean properly Yefusiji, Tolstoy, Chekhov, Gorky, Xiao Luohuo Cardiff, and other major world famous writer and author.Russia's long history of art, painting has a long history, the famous art masters have Levitan Repin, Suriname Kefu, Kramskoi, etc..Russia's religious music and folk music has a far-reaching historical tradition, opera, symphony and chamber music with distinct national temperament, unrestrained Hammer.Russia's dramatic arts genre and diverse forms, first appeared in court, the 19th century into the period of prosperity Gogol's "Qinchai minister", and other social drama with a strong flavor of the times, with distinctive ethnic characteristics, and emerged in a number of outstanding Master of Arts.Yani Ao Estero夫斯基19 in the 1950s after the Russian literary scene in many of the most outstanding drama writers representatives, known as the "father of Russian theatre."Russian circus in Russia is also very popular among the people welcome, well-trained members of the circus, superb techniques.Russians have outstanding folk arts.Practical decorative arts metal, stone and Shougu the art processing, wood carving, wood carving murals, embroidery, with the textile patterns, such as lace knitting.The most famous wooden craft a set of her, wooden spoon, Muhe, wood disk, and other wood products.Custom: Russian Communication normally used in three circumstances "you": 1, 16 children under the age of 2, between close relatives and colleagues (young people), 3, the young people for young people.The elderly, strangers (except for children) and the leaders says "you."Children直呼of its name, and the elderly, strangers and leaders should call his name and the father said.Currently in Russia "President" and "comrades", "citizens" are called co-exist.In general business, the news media and official institutions in the habit of people to each other "Sir" in the Soviet period before the widespread use of "comrades", are still in the state-owned enterprises, military, public security departments, and "citizens" are usually in public places Use, such as: train station, shops and so on.In public statements, usually in the name of the spokesman for the words "President" and "comrades" or its corresponding title "Professor" and "engineer", for example: "Now please acting professor of speech."In writing letters, the general name of the recipient and the father wrote that in a very formal letter of the recipient's name should be added in front of "Mr." or their corresponding titles.Most of the Russian people are dining at home, just in time to work before the lunch break to restaurants.Organized the event or wedding celebration, the Russian residents are usually held in restaurants, people paid by the invitation.General meeting friends in the family environment.Guests usually bring masters of small gifts (cake, wine) and flowers.Attractions: Kremlin (Kremlin) in central Moscow, Bin Moscow River, and the Principality of Moscow has the 18th century palace before the tsar."October Revolution" after the victory, leading party and government organs to become the seat of the Soviet Union.Founded in 1156, initially for Muqiang, after Lvjing extension, to 19 in the 1940s built the Kremlin, for old buildings, the main Kremlin large, multi Palace, the Church of Our Lady of nine days, the Senate building, Ivan Great Clock Tower, and so on.Palace Tower, the most magnificent of a spark, Nicholas, Troitsk, Bao Luo Weici, Woduo Fu Zi Wode, such as Tower, 1937, at 50 cents ruby towers installed on the satellite.Bidedadi Palace (Peter the Great's Summer Palace) in the south bank of the Gulf of Finland in the forest, from the St. Petersburg city about 30 kilometers, an area of 1,000 hectares, is past the outskirts of the Russian tsar Li Gong.St. Petersburg is the Summer Palace in the early construction.The early 18th century, Russian Czar Bidetaidi ordered the construction of Palace, the simple dignity of their appearance, luxurious interiors.At that time, many of the major parties, the court celebrations and other activities are held here, will be a year before his death Bidedadi to this Duxia.1934, the Summer Palace turned into folk history museum.Today, the Summer Palace, including the 18th century has become a 19th century palace and gardens of the buildings, the construction of luxury because of its magnificent Palace thus been hailed as "the Russian Versailles."Palace representation of the main building is a two-tier floor of the palace, when Bidetaidi living in the first floor, his wife, Catherine I of Russia (Bidedadi's second wife) living in the second floor, the upstairs is decorated Gorgeous, dance halls between the cylinder, to the Venice decorated mirror.Winter Palace (Winter Palace) is located in St. Petersburg Palace Square, was the Russian Czar's palace, after the October Revolution turned into St. Petersburg as part of the National Museum艾尔米塔奇.Winter Palace was built in early 1754 to 1762, Russia is the middle of the 18th century Baroque-style architecture of the greatest monuments.1837 to a fire burned 1838-39 reconstruction.During World War II, the Winter Palace again was severely damaged, the post-war restoration.Winter Palace is a blue and white-and become the building, three floors high, the palace is about 230 meters, 140 meters wide, 22 meters high, was closed rectangular, covering 90,000 square meters, construction area of 46,000 square meters.Intrauterine have offices 1057, 1886 doors, windows 1945.Alexander, in the Winter Palace in 1830-1839 built to commemorate the 1812 Alexander I of the Russian army that defeated Napoleon Weiji.The mid-19th century, when Russia has a special legal provisions, all of St. Petersburg buildings, with the exception of the church, should be lower than the Winter Palace.Winter Palace facing the Neva River, the central slightly prominent, with three arched iron gate, the entrance to a giant god Atlas Qunxiang.Palace surrounded by two rows of galleries, the magnificent momentum.Intrauterine to colored marble, malachite, Qing Shi Shi, stone plaque, jasper mosaic; packets gold, copper plating decoration; texture to a variety of sculptures, murals, tapestry decorated; colourful and grand style.In the second half of the 18th century, Russia Queen of the card Jie Linna II reign, the house has been ordered to set aside part of the world famous art collection treasures, and these houses known as "Aiermida Day" (Hidden Palace), and later with growing collections in 1764-89 and has built between the small and large Aiermida Aiermida day.Today, the Winter Palace in bright and spacious hall, a total of 2.7 million various kinds of cultural relics, of which about 15,000 paintings, sculptures about 12,000, prints and sketches of about 620,000, about 600,000 Archaeological Finds Pieces, practical 260,000 works of art, coins and medals of about 1 million.Collection of cultural history at the original, ancient Greek and Roman culture and art, Oriental art and culture, Russian culture, the history of Western art, coins, part of seven, and geographical, of the order displayed in the exhibition hall of over 350, the exhibition circuit Total 30 km long and hence known as the world's longest art galleries.After the October Revolution, the Soviet Union in 1922 established the National Aiermida Museum.Winter Palace as part of the museum.1905 Czar shot to the Winter Palace of the petition "Bloody Sunday" incident occurred in front of the Winter Palace Square.November 7, 1917 (the Russian calendar October 25), to participate in the October Revolution mass uprising scored Winter Palace, where the arrest of the bourgeoisie interim government ministers, this former imperial palace to return to the hands of the people.Simoerni Palace (Smolny) in St. Petersburg, is an elegant appearance of the three-tier architecture.Built in 1806-1808, the Institute for the aristocratic woman."Simoerni" from the Russian word "Asphalt", here is the beginning of construction at the asphalt plant.Palace positive Simoerni 220 meters long, the two wings of the main building out, each 40 meters long each wing, composed of the main palace courtyard.In the 1960s and in the main entrance of additional eight cylinder and the magnificent seven arched gateway, and the right of its Baroque-style monastery Simoerni pistachio as one, collectively known as the Building Simoerni Group.1917 "October Revolution", the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Bolshevik party in Simoerni Palace, the headquarters for the October Revolution.November 7, 1917, Lenin in Simoerni conference hall on the call of the citizens of Russia, announced that all under the Soviet regime.November 1917 to mid-March 1918-Leninism in the office and lived here.Moscow Bideluofu Grand Theatre (Grand Theatre, Bolshoi Theatre of Russia) was founded in 1776, Russia's oldest theatre, is located in Moscow Sverdlov Square.1780 Theatre to the site to Bideluofu on the street a new stone Theatre, said Bideluofu Theatre, 1805 Theatre were burned.1824, the genius architect Bove stone in the construction site of the Theatre of the new theatre, said the Bideluofu Theatre, referred to the Grand Theatre, 1988 January 28 held the inauguration ceremony.1853, the Grand Theater also suffered fire ,1855-1856 was re-restored, with some alterations, into the mid-19th century Russian example of the art of architecture, is also one of Europe's largest theatre, in 1919 and became a model the National Grand Theatre.The building is magnificent, elegant and simple, within a well-equipped, with excellent acoustics.Theater was oval, is facing big stage, as high as 18 metres, the stage is a deep pool of musicians, the middle rows of seats.The other three are Tieqiang of the box, a total of five, 21 meters high.

The Russian Federation, The Russia geographical coordinates (Google maps satellite map Landmark) finishing date: (2006/9/30 11:50:00)
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