The Republic of France,La Republique Francaise (European countries) Satellite maps

The name: the Republic of France(The Republic of France, La Republique Francaise)National Day: July 14 (1880 Legislative Council to confirm capture the Bastille prison on the National Day to commemorate the French bourgeois revolution)>>>Heritage Day: 9 on the third Saturday and Sunday (1984 officially began, the first event in September held the third Sunday in the then Minister of Culture under the impetus Ya Kelang, in many Shengong The historical and cultural heritage open the door wide open to the public, to let more people understand love for further protection of human history and cultural heritage, initially known as the "national heritage open days" to 1992, to extend the opening hours of Saturday and Sunday Two days.)>>>Flag: a rectangular, long and wide ratio of 3:2.Flag of three parallel and equal to a vertical rectangle, from left to right were blue, white, red color.French flag a variety of sources, including the most representative is: in 1789 during the French bourgeois revolution, the Paris National Self-Defense Forces to the blue, white, red tri-color flag for Duiqi.White center, on behalf of the king, the king of the sacred symbol of status red, blue color points out the two sides, on behalf of Paris, while the three-color and symbol of the French royal family and Paris bourgeoisie Union.Three-color flag was a symbol of the French Revolution, is said to represent three-freedom, equality, fraternity.National Emblem: France has no formal national emblem, but the traditional use of the coat of arms during the Great Revolution as a national symbol.Emblem for the oval-shaped, painted on a popular revolution period of one of the signs - beam rods, this is ancient Rome with senior agents of the right standard, is a symbol of authority.Beam rods on both sides decorated with olive branches and oak branches and leaves, during which the winding Shidai on French words "freedom, equality, fraternity."With the logo from the ancient Roman Legion Medal Shoudai Central showcase.National Anthem: "La Marseillaise"National flower: IrisState bird: roosterState stone: PearlHeads of State: President Jacques Chirac (Chirac), 1995年5 he was elected, in May 2002 re-election, Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin (Dominique de Villepin), 2005年5月service; Defense Minister Alliot - Mali ( Michele Alliot-Marie), 2002年5月representation; Speaker of the National Assembly so that - Lu Yide Bolei (Jean-Louis Debre), 2002年6 he was elected.Physical Geography: an area of 551,602 square kilometers.In Western Europe, with Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Germany, Italy, Spain, Andorra, Monaco bordering the northwest at la Manche and the British sea, the endangered North Sea, English Channel, the four Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea, the Mediterranean Corsica is France's largest island.Northwest High Low-lying southeast.Plain area of two-thirds of the total.Major mountain ranges are the Alps, the Pyrenees, Jura mountains, and so on.The border of the Mont Blanc, France, Italy, 4,810 meters above sea level, the highest peak in Europe.A major river Loire (1,010 kilometers), the Rhône River (812 km), the Seine (776 km).On the Mediterranean island of Corsica is France's largest island.The total length of the border line for 5,695 kilometers, of which 2,700 km of coastline and land lines to 2,800 km, the river is 195 km line.The west is a maritime temperate broad-leaved forest climate, the southern Mediterranean climate is subtropical, central and eastern parts of a continental climate.The average rainfall from northwest to southeast from 600 mm to 1000 mm increments above.Population: 62.9 million (January 2006), including 4 million foreign nationals, of which 2 million people from EU countries, the immigrant population reached 4.9 million, of the nation's total population of 8.1 percent.GM French.90 percent of the residents were Catholic, while about 400 million Muslims and minority Protestant, Jewish, Buddhist, Orthodox.Capital: Paris (Paris), the urban population of 2.17 million.Orsay Museum - the most beautiful museums in EuropeAdministrative Division: divided into regional, provincial and municipal.Provincial and county under the TSA, but not administrative regions.County is the judicial and electoral units.Of the local community is zoned for a total of 22 regions, 96 provinces and four overseas departments, four overseas territories, the two have a special status of the district.A total of 36,565 towns, including a population of less than 3,500 people have 34,000, the population of more than 30,000 people in 231 population over 100,000 of the city of 37.22 major areas are: Alsace, Aquitaine, Aoweiernie, Boolean high death, Brittany, the central region, Champagne - Aden, Corsica, Franche-- Gongdai, Paris region, Franck grams - Luxi Weng, slim Chan, Lorraine, South Pyrenees, North Calais Strait, the Normandy, on the Normandy, Loire region, Pikaerdi, Kapembwa map - Charentes, Pu Luo Wang Slovakia - the Alps - Blue Coast, Rhône - Alps.Four overseas departments is: Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guyana, La Reunion.Four overseas territories are: French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna, French Southern and Antarctic Territory.Two districts are: Ma Mayotte and Saint Pierre and Miquelon.History: BC Gauls in this settlement.1 century BC, Rome Gauls Governor Julius Caesar all the occupied Gaul, from the Roman rule of 500 years.The 5th century Franks conquered Gaul, the establishment of the Kingdom of Frank.10 century, the rapid development of the feudal society.1337-coveted French and British throne, the outbreak of "a hundred years war."Initially, large areas of land occupied by the British, King captured, the French people after an anti-war, in 1453 ended a century of war.15 end of the century to the early 16th century a centralized state.The mid-17th century, the absolute monarchy system reached a peak.With the development of bourgeois power, the 1789 outbreak of the French Revolution, the abolition of the monarchy, and in the September 22, 1792 the establishment of the First Republic.November 9, 1799 (on the 18th Brumaire), Napoleon Bonaparte to seize political power, in 1804 Chen Di, the establishment of the first empire.February 1848 outbreak of the revolution, the establishment of the Second Republic.President Louis Bonaparte in 1851 military coup the following year in December the establishment of the Second Empire.1870-Prussian War in the defeat, in September 1871 set up the Third Republic until June 1940 when the Government of France Pui surrender of Germany, now the Third Republic Fumie.March 18, 1871, Paris held the armed uprising, the establishment of the Paris Commune.In the end of May, the French troops brutally suppressed.The first time, France was Germany during World War II aggression.June 1944 announced the establishment of the interim government, Charles de Gaulle (right) As the Summit, 1946 adoption of the constitution, the establishment of the Fourth Republic.September 1958 adopted a new constitution, the Fifth Republic was established in December the same year Charles de Gaulle was elected president.Normandy landingPolitics: President is the head of state and armed forces commander, a five-year term (June 2000 to five years), directly elected by voters.Appointment and removal of the Prime Minister and the President has the right to approve the nomination of Minister of the Prime Minister, presided over the cabinet meeting, the Supreme Defense and National Defense Committee meeting; the right to dissolve the parliament; by Parliament may be some important bill directly to a referendum vote in extraordinary times, the president has " The situation needs to take the necessary measures "credentials.The president is unable to perform their duties or when the president left vacant by the President of the Senate to act during the presidential mandate.Parliament by the National Assembly and the Senate, have enacted laws and supervising the government, through the budget, approved declaration of war powers.A total of 577 National Assembly seats for a term of five years, using two most direct voting system, voters directly elected.According to July 2003 France and China parliament passed the Senate reform bill, senators since 2004, shortened the period from nine years to six years, and in 2010 the total seats from 321 to 340 people, half of the triennial election.By the National Assembly and local levels, the electoral college composed of board members indirectly elected.July 31, 1995, the French Parliament passed a constitutional amendment.The bill President has the right to make greater use of a referendum to resolve the economic and social problems.French President in the Government or the Senate, National Assembly under the proposal, all is related to public power organizations, the French economic or social policy reform programme by the referendum vote.Presidential Office - the Elysee Palace, the Prime Minister's Office - Weng Matignon Palace, the National Assembly - the Palais Bourbon.Paris OperaEconomy: France developed economy, the gross domestic product in the world forefront.The main industrial sectors are mining, metallurgy, iron and steel, automobile manufacturing, shipbuilding, machinery manufacturing, textile, chemical, electrical, power, daily consumer goods, food processing and construction, and so on.Nuclear energy, petrochemicals, the development of marine, aviation and aerospace, and other emerging industrial sector developed rapidly in recent years, the share of industrial output continues to increase.Capacity of nuclear power equipment, petroleum and petroleum processing technology ranked second in the world after the United States; aviation and aerospace industry after the United States and the CIS, ranking third in the world.Iron and steel industry, the textiles industry accounted for sixth in the world.But industry still dominated by traditional industrial sectors, including steel, automotive, construction of three pillars.Industry in the national economy has gradually reduced the proportion of the trend.The tertiary industry in France in the proportion of the economy increased year after year.Including telecommunications, information, tourism services and the transport sector business volume increased considerably, and employees in the service industry accounts for about 70 percent of the total workforce.French business more developed, is the largest revenue-generating sales of food, in a wide variety of shops, supermarkets and chain stores the most dynamic, accounting for almost half of all commercial activities.France iron ore reserves of about 1 billion tons, but low-grade, high cost of mining, the most dependent on imported iron ore.Coal reserves almost exhausted, is expected to close all coal mines in 2005.Bauxite reserves of about 90 million tons.Few non-ferrous metal reserves, almost all rely on imports.Only oil reserves more than 3,000 million tonnes.Natural gas reserves of 250 billion cubic meters, 99 percent for oil, natural gas 75 percent dependent on imports.Water resources is about 10 million kilowatts, mainly rely on nuclear energy, hydro and geothermal resources development and utilization of the relatively full.Forest area of about 15.3 million hectares, accounting for the EU's total forest area of 21.1 percent, the per capita green area of 0.3 hectares, the forest coverage rate to 28.2 percent.France is the EU's largest agricultural producing countries,Is the world's major agricultural exporting countries.The total grain output of one-third of the European food production, agricultural exports after the United States ranked second in the world.With the population of French cities, the rural population declining, a total of 54.919 million hectares of cultivated land area, of which 61 per cent of agricultural land, 27 percent for forestry land, 12 percent for non-agricultural land.96 percent of agricultural land for all families.The structure of traditional agricultural areas: north-central regions are grains, oil-bearing crops, vegetables, sugar beet in the main producing areas, and the western mountains of fodder crops for the main producing areas, the Mediterranean coast and the southwest region of perennial crops (grapes, fruit) the main production District.Mechanization is to improve agricultural productivity of the primary means of law have basically achieved the mechanization of agriculture.Agricultural food processing industry is access to export surplus of one of the pillar industries.100 before the European agricultural food industry groups 24 in France, the world's top 100 agricultural food industry groups have seven in France, the French agricultural exports ranked first in the world, accounting for 11 percent of the world market.France is the world's leading tourism countries, the reception of overseas tourists each year more than 70 million people, more than its own population.Capital Paris, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast of the scenic area and the Alps are tourist destinations, in addition to some historical relics, the ancient castle group Loire River, the fishing village of Brittany and Normandy, Corsica, and so on.France some famous museum collections in the world's cultural legacy.France is also the world trading power, its foreign trade has two characteristics: first, imports more than exports, causing the trade deficit, imports of goods mainly energy and industrial raw materials, exports mainly machinery, automobiles, chemical products, steel, agricultural products, Food, clothes, cosmetics and arms, world-renowned French wine, liquor exports accounted for half of world exports.French fashion, French cuisine, French perfume in the world famous; another non-technology products of the fast export growth, net exports of technology in the entire export trade in the increasingly prominent position.French government revenue is the main source of tax revenue than the United States, Japan and other countries, mainly from capital gains tax, there are other income tax, company tax, social welfare tax.─ ─ the French resort of Evian>>> the world's highest bridge - about the bridge metersCulture: the 17th century, the French classical literature ushered in his brilliant period, the advent of the Moliere, Stendhal, Balzac, Dumas, Victor Hugo Flaubert, Xiaozhong Ma, Zola, MO Park Sang, Romain Rolland and other literary great masters.Many of their works become the world's literary treasures.The "Notre Dame de Paris", "Red and Black", "high-old man," "基督山伯爵," "Les Miserables" and "John克利斯朵夫", has been translated into world literature in the world Widely circulated.In modern French art in carrying forward the tradition rather on the basis of innovation, not only has such a Rodin sculpture arts master, there have been like Monet and Matisse, and other Impressionist, Ye Shoupai representative.From the 17th century, France in industrial design, art and design areas of the world's leading status has long been obvious to all.Relating to functional art, architecture, fashion design, industrial design professional schools have long been relying on its "made in France" known for its fruit business overseas.French favorite sport, the sport more popular football, tennis, rugby, and bowls, sailing, swimming, skiing, and cycling, such as ring赛.Well-known universities are the University of Paris, Lyon University.Cannes International Film Festival is one of the world's five major film festival, the annual May in the southeastern French city of Cannes on the waterfront, it is the world's oldest and largest international film festival one of about two weeks.In 1956 the highest award for the "Golden Duck Award", from 1957 to the "Palme d'Or prize."France has a long history of coffee culturePress and Publications: major newspaper "Le Figaro", "Le Monde", "French Evening News" and "liberation" and "humanitarianism" and "Paris Journal."A major local newspaper "the French newspaper", it is France's largest newspaper "Voice of the North."A major magazine "Express" and "perspective", "Le Nouvel Observateur," "Paris Match Illustrated", "Le Figaro Magazine."About 6000 Press Law, of which 331 are large.Agencies have one of the world's top five news agency Agence France-Presse.Founded in 1835.French National Broadcasting Corporation was established in 1975, under the six radio stations.In addition, NBC and local joint investment of 17 local independent Taiwan.To enhance foreign propaganda, the state broadcasting company dedicated to the French international independent Taiwan, foreign broadcasting almost all over the world.Government by decree in 1982, abolished the state monopoly on radio, and groups set up to allow private radio.At present, nearly 1,300 private radio stations are the main Luxembourg station, Radio Monte Carlo, the European one, and so on.The existing four national state television.More than 20 central or local cable television station, and many can receive via satellite television channels.Sights: the Arc de Triomphe in Paris (L'arc de Triomphe) is located in the heart of Paris Star Plaza (now known as General de Gaulle Square) in central and France to commemorate Napoleon in February 1806 in the Battle of Austell Lici Russia defeated Austrian coalition built, 12 Main Street to the Arc de Triomphe as the center, to the surrounding radiation, magnificent, full shape of Stars.Engineering design by the architect Xiaergelan, founded in August 1806, lasted 30 Hanshu, in July 1836 completion.Arc De Triomphe high 49.54 meters, 44.82 meters wide and 22.21 meters thick.It has four doors, the center arches 14.6 meters wide, the gatehouse for the pier to two high pillars, the middle of the lift from top to bottom.In the arched dome on a three-tier Wai Gallery, the highest level is the showroom, where a display of the Arc de Triomphe in various historical artifacts of Napoleon's life and deeds of the picture, the second collection of various French Medal Medal; minimum Arc De Triomphe is a layer of security and the accounting room.Atlas: The French-US movementEiffel Tower in Paris city centre Seine south coast, is the world's first structure of a steel tower, be regarded as a symbol of Paris.斯塔夫埃菲尔by French architect named after the construction design.Built in the 1887-1889 year.300-meter high tower, the tower weighs 9,000 tons, three points.The first tier platform 57 meters from the ground, set up shops and restaurants; second-tier platform 115 meters high, a coffee shop; third tier platform as high as 276 meters, to the public towards the bottom area of 10,000 square meters, The third tier structure of the building suddenly contracted, against the sky.If viewed from the side, like inverted write the letters "Y".The tower from the 1.8 million-more than 250 component parts and a 10,000 rivets.Or on foot to board a lift tower.At night, a rotation of the top-color searchlight, anti-aircraft collisions.Rectangular tower erected next to the white marble columns, gold-plated Zhuding placed斯塔夫埃菲尔head.The Louvre (Palais du Louvre) is France's largest construction of the palace, located in the heart of Paris right banks of the Seine, south of Paris Opera Square.Was originally a medieval castle, the 16th century after several alterations and extension to the existing scale of the 18th century.Covering about 45 hectares.As early as 1546, King Francois I of the original castle in the decision on the basis of the construction of a new palace, after a nine monarchs continued expansion, which lasted more than 300 years, forming a U-Shape was the grand glory of the palace complex.August 10, 1793, the anniversary of the overthrow of the monarchy, France, "National Association" decided that the old palace turned into the National Museum and Art Gallery, the same year on November 18, the Louvre museum formally opened to the public.All of its projects completed in 1857.I shaped main hall of the Louvre in the west side, stretching out the two side rooms, the middle of the open space formed Carew赛Square.Palace of the east have long list of galleries, architectural towering magnificent.Its galleries as long as 900 feet, the fighters 17th century and many in Europe during the Renaissance artist's works.Collections of 400,000.The Louvre Museum and Art Gallery is divided into six parts: Greece and Rome Museum of Art; Oriental Museum of Art; Egyptian Museum of Art; European Middle Ages, Renaissance and modern sculpture museum; history painting museum.Exhibition by different schools and schools of thought and of the times.A sculpture exhibition.Two-story oil paintings, drawings and color is the three-tier Fenhua.The early 1980s, the French government implemented the expansion and restoration of the Louvre's "Louvre plans."Notre Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris) is the most famous medieval Gothic cathedral, with its size, age and in archaeology, architecture, the value is known.Paris Archbishop Moliside Ogata Lee had envisaged two earlier Basilica (rectangular) church of a large church in 1163 by Pope Alexander III foundation, high altar at the dedication ceremony held in 1189, 1240 Changshi Class seats, west front and the completion of Zhongtang, porch, prayer rooms and other decoration in the following 100 years have built.Internal plane 130 × 48 meters, 35 meters high roof, tower 68 meters high.Tower spires has not built.After successive damage to the church to rebuild in the 19th century, only three huge round windows remain in the 13th century stained glass.Appear after the pile-supported Special Xiongjian beautiful.Bastille prison site (Place de la Bastille) in eastern Paris, the right bank of the Seine, where the year 1369-1382 was established in a military fortress."Bastille" in the French intention was "Castle."This ancient castle has eight towering solid fort, built to resist the United Kingdom is the beginning of the invasion.1380-1422, this was changed to the Royal Castle prison.An area of 2,670 square meters the whole castle, built around a一堵are high and thick stone walls and eight of more than 30 meters high tower, have dug around the deep ditch 24 meters wide, and out of a suspension bridge.As early as the 16th century, began here on the detention of political prisoners imprisoned, the French Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire had twice held here.In the eyes of the French people, the Bastille prison has become France's symbol of the feudal autocratic rule.July 3, 1789, the people of Paris Ran Fen intifada, 14, captured the Bastille prison, opened in prelude to the French Revolution.1791, the demolition of the Paris Bastille prison, in its built on the former site of the Bastille Square, and removed the stone to the shop to the Seine Concorde bridge for pedestrians trampled on.1830, the French people also set up a centre in the Plaza of the July Revolution of the martyrs monument.The martyrs monument 52 meters high, bronze Zhucheng Beishen is the cylinder, called the "July cylinder," in the column is a top right hand held high the torch of freedom of the winged statues, statues of being left-handed to the chain symbol Zaduan The access to freedom.In prison ruins in front of a brand legislation, wrote: "We are here to dance!" In June 1880, France will be July 14 in Paris took the bus at the end of the prison that day as the French national day.Panthéon (le Pantheon) located in the heart of Paris left bank of the Seine to this area, built in 1791, France is a permanent mark the history of the famous temple.It was originally built in Louis XV era, Wei Yewa church of St., was nationalized in 1791 from the religious, to bury the "great men" of the cemetery.1814 to 1830, it returned to the church.Panthéon in the decorative arts is very beautiful, its dome is a large mural painter Antoine Grothe creation.1830 "July Revolution" after painting the theme of change, Panthéon is a "pure patriotism and national" characteristics.Panthéon, buried Voltaire, Rousseau, Victor Hugo, Emile Zola love Mill, Marcelin Beituo Luo, Jaures Berlioz, Malraux and Dumas, etc. .To November 2002, a total of 70 pairs of French people who made extraordinary contributions to the enjoyment of this award.Georges Pompidou National Art and Culture Centre (Centre National d'art et de Culture Georges Pompidou) Balilading area is located in the north, the right bank of the Seine Bo Fort Street, local people often also referred to as "Bo Fort."Cultural Centre of the forest outside a steel frame, vertical and horizontal pipes, and in accordance with different functions were coated red, yellow, blue, green, white and other colors.Because of this very modern building look like a factory, it has "refinery" and "cultural factory," said.The new layout and design, modeling specific modernization construction is the late President Pompidou decided to build in 1969, officially started in 1972, built in 1977, opened the same year in February.The whole building covering 7,500 square meters, a total construction area of 100,000 square meters, six-story floor.The whole building is divided into the creation of industrial centres, public knowledge Library, Museum of Modern Art and music audio harmonization with the majority of the four research centres.>>>Place de la Concorde in Paris (Place de la Concorde in Paris) located in the heart of Paris, the north shore of the river Seine, France's most famous square and the world's most beautiful square one.Plaza was built in 1757, is based on well-known architects卡布里埃尔the design and construction.Place Centre for Plastic had a ride like Louis 15, 1763 have been named "Louis XV Square."During the Great Revolution has been renamed as the "Revolution Square."1795 will of its renamed the "Place de la Concorde", after the renovation architects Xituo Fu, culminating in 1840 formed the present scale.Central Square in a towering 23 meters high, 3,400 years of history of Egyptian obelisk, which is Louis - Philip in 1831 from Egypt Luxor shift to the famous cultural relics, the ancient written records Beishen of Ramesses II Pharaoh's deeds.Stone on both sides have a fountain.The pool is exquisite carvings Xituo Fu's works.Square placed around the statue of the eight, were a symbol of eight in the history of France played an important role in the City: Lyon, Marseille, Bordeaux, Nantes, Rouen, Bulesite, Lille and Strasbourg.1793 Revolution period, the people of Paris rose up and destroyed the statue of Louis XV and Louis XVI into the guillotine.Champs Elysees (Ave des Champs-Elysees) west to east from the Place de la Concorde Square, Star, is about 1,800 meters, street about 120 meters broad at its widest point, is the most characteristic and the Trans-Paris, one of the most bustling streets .In French, "Champs Elysees" was "pastoral paradise" means.The past, here was a low-lying wet ground.17th century reign of Louis XIV, here in planting trees and turn it into the aristocratic pleasure palace for the restricted area.Later, the Thule in the park westward extension of the axis of things, where to build a nearly one kilometer-long avenue.After the expansion added.In 1709 only to be named as the Champs Elysees.Main Street to the north-south street Longbu million for the sector, style divided into two very different things.The eastern section of the quiet idyllic scenery, about 700 meters, the rows of green to drop the Indus, Jiexin Garden caught in the trees when the leaves are hidden when.Easternmost star of a towering grand central square, Xiaer the famous Arc de Triomphe.Main Street near the Palais Bourbon, Madelinnuo Cathedral.There are also plans Le Park, the Louvre, the Elysee Palace, and other city buildings and monuments.The western section of over 1,100 meters, the western end of the Place de la Concorde in Paris is another traffic要冲.France's major festivals ─ ─ 7月14日National Day parade, New Year festival in this well-known on the street held.Masters history: the French playwright Moliere: January 15, 1622 Health.Entitled to - Baptiste. Boke Lan.Moliere was after he took part in the theatre by the stage name.Moliere 10-year-old Sangmu, grandfather often took him to see a farce, comedy and Tragicomedy.In the 1950s, began the speech some of Moliere farce and comedy "Mao Shigui" (1653).Back to Paris in 1658 and mainly engaged in classic comedy creation, a series of works available, such as "lovely woman Talent" (1659), "斯卡纳莱尔" (1660), "her husband School" (1661), "Mrs. Hall" (1662).1664-1668, is Moliere's creative peak stage, plays a "hypocrite" (1664), "Don Juan" (1665), "Lin Segui" (1668).After 1668, Moliere also wrote a number of satirical works.Moliere wrote a life of more than 30 of the comedy.He shaping personality factors appropriate to introduce a farce, make full use of everyday language, and other aspects of the art of comedy has made outstanding contributions.Moliere died in 1673.Voltaire (1694-1778): 18th century French Enlightenment thinkers, as the "King of thinking" and "the best French poet."Francois Mali A Luai name, is the pen name Voltaire.Born in Paris, an affluent middle-class families, a child with a good education.Voltaire has experienced Louis 14, 15, Shi Liusan of the rule of the feudal dynasty, witnessed the feudal autocracy by the failure to Sheng, a personal sense of security to the feudal autocratic rule of corrupt and reactionary.For youth, expressed his opposition to the rule of the feudal aristocracy works, the two were locked up in the Bastille prison.After leaving prison in 1725, lived in the United Kingdom 2003.He advocated "enlightened monarch" rule, implemented constitutional monarchy.Voltaire wrote many books, he opposed the feudal autocracy, against religious superstition, and promote the principles of freedom and equality, that people are equal before the law.His major works include: "Philosophical Dictionary," "On the national customs and spirit", "Louis XIV era."Also wrote about China's Historical Play "China's orphans."Rousseau (1712-1778): French Enlightenment thinker and philosopher.Born in Geneva Zhongbiao Jiang family.As a proxy, a secretary, the family of teachers, members of transcribed music.Advocates the establishment of the Democratic Republic of the bourgeoisie, the masses of the people that private ownership is the root cause of social oppression, but do not advocate complete elimination of private ownership.Major works include "The Social Contract" (Translation of the old "some people"), "On the Origin of human inequality and infrastructure," "Confessions" and so on.Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821): French statesman and military strategist, the first imperial emperor of France (1808-1814).Born in Corsica Eyakexiu City.Paris graduated from the Military Academy, a former artillery second lieutenant, Major.Toulon campaign in 1793 set a Zhangong, breaking Geti will prevail.Governor's administration Lvjun attack Italy (1796) and Egypt (1798).November 1799 military coup, the establishment of the bailiff.Cheng Di in 1804.1812 war defeat to Russia, the empire disintegrated.1815 defeat in Waterloo.Banished to the Atlantic Ocean in St. Helena.Victor Hugo (1802-1885): French literary history one of the greatest writers.Hugo on February 26, 1802 Besancon was born in France of a family of officers, he talented, creative Jingjiubushuai, literary career for half a century old.He is the humanitarian work through the main line.Hugo was born officers family.Childhood father went to Italy, Spain, settled in Paris in 1814.Youth, he embarked on a struggle for social progress and the road.1831 published the novel "Notre Dame de Paris", the authors demonstrated the strong anti-feudal, anti-Church's thinking.1848 "February Revolution" at the beginning, Hugo has become a firm Republican, was elected to the Constituent Assembly and a member of the French National Assembly in a social democratic leftist leaders.1851, Louis Bonaparte a coup.Hugo immediately issued a declaration against, unfortunately failed.In December, Hugo forced to flee to Brussels.During the 19 years of his life in exile, Hugo Napoleon III, always adhere to the struggle against dictatorship, and insisted on writing.1862 completed the novel "Les Misérables."1870 second french empire collapsed, Hugo returned to their land.In 1872 he completed a novel last "93."May 22, 1885 death in Paris.Hugo lifetime follow the pace of the times ahead, the French literary history is an important writer.Particularly worth mentioning is that in 1861, when Hugo was informed that British and French invaders fire Yuanmingyuan issued a wholehearted indignation.Yizhengciyan he wrote: "The victory of the French empire from the get half of the stolen goods, it now seems naive in the real owners of their own that is similar to the plundering of the Yuanmingyuan brilliant show to the exhibition. I look forward to the day when France can shake off the burden, the responsibility for cleaning, these were looting the wealth back to China. "Picasso House MuseumMay 8 every year, the French military guard of honor of the WWII victoryDiplomacy: France is the UN Security Council permanent members, the EU founding countries and an important member of NATO members (but not participate in NATO's military integration institutions).Since 1958 the establishment of the French Fifth Republic, successive governments have followed General de Gaulle's independent foreign policy of developing and maintaining national independence.The EU is the law of diplomatic foothold in this.Law to promote the building of Europe, the EU will build a truly independent pole, a method in which the core role of promoting the multipolarization, development, and strengthen cooperation between Europe and Asia and other regions; efforts to coordinate the relations with big countries; maintain and development African countries and the traditional relations and promoting the non-developed countries to increase assistance; actively involved in the Middle East peace process and the hot affairs with the strengthening of Asia, Latin America's political and economic relations.Relations with China: January 27, 1964, France established diplomatic relations with China.France is the major Western countries in the first and the establishment of new China at the ambassadorial level diplomatic relations between the countries.In recent years, high-level visits between the two countries.September 1994, President Jiang Zemin's visit to France.May 1997, French President Jacques Chirac on a state visit to China, the two heads of state signed the "Sino-French Joint Statement," the decision to establish the 21st century Sino-French comprehensive partnership.October 1999, President Jiang Zemin was invited to France on a state visit.October 2000, French President Jacques Chirac an official visit to China.

The Republic of France,La Republique Francaise geographical coordinates (Google maps satellite map Landmark) finishing date: (2006/9/30 11:45:00)
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