The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (European countries) Satellite maps

Country: United Kingdom(The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)Flag: a horizontal rectangle, the length and width ratio of 2:1."M" word flag, dark blue background and red, white, "m" word composition.In the white-flag with the red cross is the representative of St. George's patron saint of England, Scotland, on behalf of white-cross the sacred guardian of Andrew, Red Cross representative cross-sacred guardian of Patrick Ireland.This flag produced in 1801, the land is the former England are 10 red flag, the blue and white Scottish cross-cross the white flag and the Irish Red Cross flag cross from overlapping.National Emblem: King logo.Center logo for a shield emblems, shields and face the top-left corner to the lower right corner on the three Red Lion, the symbol of England; upper right corner of the ground for the semi-standing Red Lion, the symbol of Scotland; bottom left corner of a blue-ground gold harp, Symbol of Ireland.Shield emblem on both sides of the crown of his head by one, representatives of the lions of England, Scotland and represent a branch of the Licorne pulled out.Shield logo around a motto written in French, means "Eyouebao" has been hoisted at the bottom of the Order of the Garter, Shidai read "days of God, I have rights."Shield logo for the top gold jewelry inlaid with silver helmets, wearing the crown imperial crown and the lion.The national anthem: "God bless the Queen" "god save the queen" (such as the reign of male monarchs, the national anthem to "god save the king")National flower: rosesState bird: red chest pigeonsState stone: DiamondScience Festival: 1831, held once a yearScience Week: 1994, in the annual March heldNational political figures: Queen Elizabeth II (Queen Elizabeth II), 1952年2月6日enthronement, June 2, 1953 coronation; Prime Minister Tony Blair (Tony Blair), 1997年5月office, in June 2001 re-election, May 5, 2005 of the Labor Party in Britain in the re-election victory, Blair became the first Labor prime minister a third reelection as leader of their duties.Physical Geography: 243,600 square km (including inland water), England 130,400 square kilometers, Scotland 78,800 square kilometers, Wales, 20,800 square kilometers, Northern Ireland 13,600 square kilometers.In Europe the western part of the island.From Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales), northeast of the island of Ireland and a number of smaller islands.At the North Sea, the Dover Strait and the English Channel and across the European continent.Its land border with the Irish Republic border.Chief 11,450 km coastline.The whole territory is divided into four parts: England southeastern plains, the central and western mountains, the mountains of Scotland, Northern Ireland plateau and mountain.Major rivers are Serbian River (354 km) and Thames (346 kilometers).Northern Ireland Brenner Lake (396 square kilometers) area in the nation's first.A maritime temperate broad-leaved forest climate, moderate humid all year round.The maximum temperature is usually not more than 32 ℃, the lowest temperature of not lower than -10 ℃, the average temperature of 1月4 ~ 7 ℃, 7月13 ~ 17 ℃.Multi-Yu Wu, particularly in autumn and winter.The average annual rainfall of about 1,000 mm.Northern and western mountains of over 2,000 mm of precipitation in the central and eastern parts of less than 800 mm.February-March in each of the most dry, between October and January next year the most humid.Population: About 60.2 million (June 2005), in which England a population of 50.4 million, Sugelanda 5100000, 3000000 for Wales, Northern Ireland amounted to 1.7 million.Official languages are English and GM.North Wales also use the Welsh, Scottish highlands and northwestern parts of Northern Ireland is still being used in Gaelic.Many Protestant Christian residents, mainly at the Church of England (also known as the Anglican Church, whose members account for about 60 percent of British adults) and the Church of Scotland (also known as Presbyterian, adult followers 660,000).Another Catholic Church and Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism and Islam, and so the larger religious communities.London BridgeCapital: London (london); Population: 7.4 million (2004).The hottest month of July, the general temperature in 13 ℃ -22 ℃; the coldest month for January, the general temperature in 2 ℃ -6 ℃.April 2006, Beijing and London, became sister cities.Administrative Division:-England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland four parts.England is divided into 43 counties, Scotland under the 29 district and three special jurisdiction, under the Northern Ireland 26, Wales 22 under the district.Scotland, Wales Parliament and its executive body has overall responsibility for local affairs, foreign affairs, defense, overall economic and monetary policy, employment policy and social security remains central government control.London also called "Greater London" (Greater London), 32 under the independent City (London boroughs) and a "financial City" (City of London).District Council is responsible for all major matters, but with the Greater London Council and the mayor of coordination involving the affairs of the entire London.In addition, there are 12 British dependent territories.Big Ben in LondonHistory: BC Mediterranean Iberians, BAK, Boston, has come to Britain.Year of Great Britain 1-5 for the south-eastern Roman Empire rule.After the withdrawal of the Romans, the Anglo people in northern Europe, the Saxons, who have Zhute invasion and settlement.7 century feudal system began to take shape, many small countries and the Kingdom of seven percent, Zhengxiong 200 years, Shicheng "Anglo - Saxon times."829, Wessex King Egbert of Wessex unified England.8 end of the century by the Danish invasion, from 1016 to 1042 as part of the Danish pirate empire.Subsequently short-term rule by the British monarch, the Duke of Normandy in 1066 crossed the sea to conquer England.1215 King John to sign Magna Carta, the monarchy has been inhibited.1338-1453 British law "100 years of war," the British victory after the defeat.Beat Spain in 1588 "Invincible Armada," a maritime hegemony.1640 Britain in the global outbreak of a bourgeois revolution, a bourgeois revolution pioneer.May 19, 1649 announced the establishment of the Republic.1660 Dynasty restoration in 1668 a "glorious revolution", established a constitutional monarchy.1707 England and Scotland merged in 1801 with the merger of Ireland.In the second half of the 18th century to the first half of the 19th century, to become the world's first industrial revolution countries.19 century is the heyday of the British Empire period, the colonial possession in 1914 than the 111 times the local community, is the first colonial power, claiming "the empire is not charged."After the First World War started decline.United Kingdom in 1920 the establishment of Northern Ireland counties, and from 1921 to 1922 to allow its rule from southern Ireland, the establishment of an independent state.1931 enactment of the Bill of Westminster, was forced to recognize their self-governing in internal affairs, foreign policy of independence, the British Empire from the colonial system shaken.World War II economic strength greatly weakened, the political status of decline.With the 1947 India and Pakistan have been independent, to the 1960s, the collapse of the British Empire colonial system.January 1973 to join the EC.Politics: Britain's constitution is different from the majority of the Constitution, not a separate document, it is statutory, customary law, practice component.Mainly the Magna Carta (1215), habeas corpus (1679), the Bill of Rights (1689), the Act of Parliament (1911,1949) and the previous amend the electoral law, municipal autonomy, the County Council Law.Another Scotland its own independent legal system.Form of government for the constitutional monarchy.King is the head of state, the Supreme Judicial Chief Executive, the armed forces and commander-in-chief of the Anglican "Supreme Leader", the right to form appointment and removal of the Prime Minister, Minister of ministries, senior judges, military officers, the Governor of the territory, diplomats, bishops and the Anglican Senior clergy, and to convene, to stop and the dissolution of parliament, approved the law, such as the power to declare war make peace, but the real power in the cabinet.Parliament is the highest judicial and legislative institutions, by the King, on the Senate and the House composition.House (aristocratic house), including descendants of the royal family, the hereditary aristocracy, the new closure aristocracy, the Court of Appeal judges and bishops and the Archbishop of the Church.November 1999, the House passed the reform bill, in addition to 92 office, more than 600 hereditary aristocrats lost on the hospital's eligibility, non-political appointment of the special upper house members will recommend the Royal Commission.The House also called the homes of civilians, members elected by universal suffrage, to take the most votes in the constituency on the election of the electoral system for a term of five years.However, the Government may decide early election.The Government implemented the cabinet system, appointed by the Queen in the parliamentary elections by a majority of seats the party leader becoming prime minister and cabinet, responsible to Parliament.Downing Street on the 10th Northern Ireland peace Long WayGibraltar Tafang West, the British controversy Island - Gibraltar and Spain, the United Kingdom and Gibraltar signed a historic tripartite cooperation agreementQueen Victoria Square, Birmingham City on the City Hall buildingPolitical parties: (1) Labour Party (Labour Party): the ruling party.1900 to set up, was originally called the Labour Representation Committee, now known to switch to 1906.The party in 1945-1951, ,1964-1970, 1974-1979 came to power.1997 election victory, in June 2001 after the general election reelected to govern.In recent years the Labor Party more inclined to the interests of the middle class, the relationship between trade unions and alienation.Blair was elected Labor Party leader, raised the political "New Labour, New Britain," the slogan of the party constitution in the abolition of Article IV of public ownership, economic ideas to reduce government intervention and strict control of public expenditure and maintain macroeconomic stability growth, the establishment of Modern welfare system.Foreign advocated active participation in international cooperation, to take a positive attitude toward European integration, adding that the euro, advocates maintain special relations with the United States.Nearly 400,000 existing members, the United Kingdom is the largest party.(2) the Conservative Party (Conservative Party): the main opposition party.Formerly known as the United States in 1679 to set up the party, who is now renamed in 1833.The party from 1979 to 1997 four consecutive power, as the 20th century in Britain the dominant political party.In May 1997 and June 2001 general election defeat twice in the Labor Party.Conservative Party supporters from the business community and the general well-off class, advocated a free market economy.To strictly control the money supply and reducing public expenditure, and other measures to suppress inflation.That restrict trade union rights, the strengthening of "legal" and "order."In recent years, the proposed implementation of "compassionate conservatism", an interest in education, health care, poverty and other social problems.Britain stressed that safeguarding sovereignty and oppose the "federal Europe", and oppose joining the euro, advocates the establishment of the "Atlantic community" to strengthen the special relationship between Britain and the United States.Britain stressed that NATO is still the cornerstone of security and defense.Existing party members over 30 million.(3) Liberal Democratic Party (The Liberal Democrat Party): 1988年3月former Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party, the Liberal Party merged with the support of the majority component.Advocates continue to maintain relations of cooperation with the Labor Party to promote the Labor Party in local elections and elections in the House of implementing the system of proportional representation in public services, social justice, environmental protection and other issues than the Labor Party take a more "progressive" policies.About 100,000 existing party members, is Britain's third-largest party.In addition, there are other British political parties: Scottish National Party (Scottish National Party), Wales National Party (Plaid Cymru), as well as some political parties such as Northern Ireland: Ulster Unionists (Ulster Unionist Party), the Democratic Unionist Party (Democratic Unionist Party), Social Democratic Labor Party (Social Democratic and Labour Party), Sinn Fein (Sinn Fein), and so on.The British Museum Reading Room of the radioJustice: There are three different legal systems: England and Wales implementation of the common law, civil law practice in Scotland, Northern Ireland and England similar to the implementation of the legal system.Judiciary-Civil Court and Criminal Tribunal for the two systems.In England and Wales, the civil trial-level agencies into the County Court, the High Court, the Court of Appeal Civil Division, the Upper House.According to a criminal trial-level agencies into the District Court, Criminal Court, the Court of Appeal Criminal Division, the Upper House.British highest judicial organ for the upper house, it is the people, the final appellate criminal cases organs.Royal's Procuratorate set up in 1986, under the national government agencies, is responsible for all accepted by the police in England and Wales to the criminal case.Attorney-General and the Deputy Attorney-General of the British government's main legal adviser and in some domestic and international cases on behalf of the royal family.Economy: Britain is one of the world economic power, its gross domestic product in Western countries be in the forefront.British manufacturing sector in the proportion of the national economy has declined; services, and the proportion of energy growing, business, finance and insurance industry developed rapidly.2002, the British economy of scale fourth in the world, is the world's second largest overseas investor.Private enterprises are the mainstay of the British economy, accounting for the gross domestic product more than 60 percent.Modern service industry is a measure of the extent of the developed countries one of the criteria.Britain's service sector total employment in the economically active population accounted for 77.5 percent of the population, the output value of the GDP of 63 percent or more.Britain is the EU the most abundant energy resources in the country, is also the world's major oil and gas producing countries.Major energy coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro, and so on.Iron ore reserves of 2.7 billion tons, recoverable coal reserves of 4.6 billion tons, oil reserves of 7 billion tons and natural gas reserves of 100 million cubic meters 12260-38000.Britain is the world's first 26 million to meet its own electricity, gas users country.East London port area of the new financial centreIn 2001 a total generating capacity of 332 million kwh, of which nuclear power plants supply 090 million kwh.British coal mining industry fully privatized.Forest cover 2.79 million hectares, accounting for the British area of about 11.5% of the local community: about 8.7 percent of them in England, Scotland, about 16.9 percent, about 14.1 percent Wales, Northern Ireland about 6.1 percent.Main industries: mining, metallurgy, machinery, electronic equipment, automobiles, food, beverages, tobacco, textile, paper, printing, publishing and construction.In addition, the British aviation, electronics, chemical industry more advanced and submarine oil exploration, information engineering, satellite telecommunications, microelectronics, and other emerging technologies in recent years, greater development.British emphasis on new energy and renewable energy research and development.British non-energy resources are not rich, mainly dependent on imports of industrial raw materials.British development of nuclear energy have decades of history, for the present generation of nuclear power plants have 14.In 2001 the manufacturing sector accounted for about 17.5 percent of GDP, employing more than 3.7 million, of the total employment population of 14.5 percent.Fisheries are mainly livestock farming and animal husbandry, food industry, horticulture, fisheries.The service industry including finance, insurance, retail trade, tourism and business services (the provision of legal and consulting services, etc.), the rapid development in recent years.British tourism is the most important economic sector one.Annual output value over 700 billion pounds, tourism revenue in the world tourism revenue of around 5%.Scenery and tourism mainly to the countries, the British royal family culture and museums and cultural tourism is the biggest Aspect.Major tourist spots in London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Brighton, Greenwich, Stratford, Oxford, Cambridge, and so on.Britain is the world's fourth largest trading nation in the world's total trade volume of more than 5 percent, exports of goods and services gross domestic product of about 25 percent.British exports mainly machinery, automobiles, aviation equipment, electrical and electronic products, chemical products and petroleum, imports of raw materials and food.Britain is the world's sixth-largest overseas investor and the sixth largest country in foreign aid.London is the world's largest international foreign exchange markets and international insurance centre, is also the world's largest financial and trade centre.British currencyMoore marched in the streets of the British Royal Artillery regimentMilitary: Army some time in the mid-17th century.The Queen is nominally the supreme commander of the British garrison.The highest military decision-making body is "national defense and overseas policy committee," the Prime Minister as Chairman, members of the national defense minister, foreign minister, interior minister, finance minister; necessary, national defense and armed forces chief of staff, chief of staff to observe the meeting.Department of Defense for the implementation of the national defense agencies, both government administration and the military high command.Britain is the founding member of NATO and key member of an independent nuclear force, is the core of the national strategy: active participation in world affairs, and safeguarding the UK's international status; rely on the help of NATO and collective defense forces to defend Europe and the United Kingdom The security, and expand the Sino-British influence in Europe actively to strengthen the links with Commonwealth countries, the protection of its extensive overseas interests.May 1997 the Labour government came to power after the adjustment of national defense policy to continue to rely on NATO's collective defense forces as the basis of the British security; actively promote the establishment of a European rapid reaction force; maintain strong conventional forces; maintain the nuclear deterrent force; highlighted the quality of construction Army and the joint rapid reaction force of the building, focused on improving British deal with various crises, deal with emergencies of the rapid response capability, and strive to maintain Britain in Europe and overseas, the strategic interests of the traditional sphere of influence.Implementation of the voluntary military service, the service period of 3,6,9,12,15 years, generally up to 22.British implementation of the regular army and reserve units of the armed forces system integration.July 2004, the British Government announced the past 10 years the largest military adjustment programmes, on land, sea, air services and arms and military equipment structural adjustments in order to increase troops in the long-range combat capability of flexible, more Better adapt to modern warfare and respond effectively to the needs of the 21st century global threats.According to the figures provided by the British Ministry of Defense, the British existing total strength of about 205,600 people, including 109,500 Army, Navy 42,400, the Air Force 53,700.2004-2005 fiscal year's defense budget is about 29.7 billion pounds ,2007-2008 financial year is expected to grow to 33.4 billion pounds.>>Education: implementation of 5-16-year-old compulsory education system.Education accounts for the 1998/1999 fiscal year gross domestic product of 4.9 percent.Public school students be exempted from tuition fees.Private school teachers and teaching equipment conditions are better, but high charges, mostly students Fujiazaidi.Well-known colleges and universities are the University of Oxford, Cambridge, London, political and economic institutions, the University of Edinburgh.The world's first national museum - the British Museum British Museum: Cultural Experience "not buying" the British National Museum is open free tricksReuters reporters and editors at workPress and Publications: British newspapers sold per capita than any developed countries have more.A total of about 1,350 kinds of newspapers, weekly magazines and 7,000 kinds of magazines: "Daily Express", "Daily Mail", "Daily Mirror", "Daily Star", "The Sun", "Financial Times" , "Daily Telegraph", "The Guardian", "The Independent", "The Times" and "World News", "Sunday Express," "Sunday Mirror," "Mail on Sunday", "De Volkskrant" "Sunday Telegraph" and "Observer" and "Sunday Times."There are three main news agencies: (1) Reuters: in 1850 the establishment of collective joint venture, one of the world's major news agency, based in London.(2) Yonhap News: Established in 1868 by PA News, PA Sport, PA PA data retrieval and design company four joint ventures, specifically for the United Kingdom and Canada provide public relations and investment information.(3) AFX News Limited: Financial Times by AFP and joint ventures, to the European financial and business community to provide information and services in 12 European countries, the United States and Japan set up branches, the headquarters in London.British Broadcasting Corporation (radio network) (BBCNetwork Radio) founded in 1922.The company has five domestic radio stations, a foreign radio stations, with 43 languages to countries around the world showing.British Broadcasting Corporation (TV) (BBCTelevision) in the 1936 television broadcast, two Taiwan: BBC1 major broadcast news, religion, sports, opera and children's and entertainment programming, BBC2 mainly play music, art, comedy, education and some special Program.Another five digital channels for pay users.Radio Board (the Radio Authority) is responsible for the approval and management of all independent radio services, monitoring the quality of programming and advertising.Independent Television Commission (Independent Television Commission) is responsible for the approval and regulation of commercial TV service, ITV (Channel 3), Channel 4 and Channel 5.ITV programmes before broadcast in 1955, 24 hours a day, for the country, one third time broadcast news, broadcast time for other sports, comedy, games and movies.Rely mainly on advertising.Fifth channels broadcast only in March 1997.With the rapid development of the Internet, all the major newspapers and television have Internet edition, BBC Online is the most visited site.St Andrews University in Scotland, "Monday raisins" FestivalDiplomacy: Britain to the UN Security Council permanent members, one of the world's five nuclear powers, the European Union, NATO, the Commonwealth, the Western European Union, and other 120 members of important international organizations.Advocated strengthening relations with the United States, emphasizing the development of other major countries and the relationship between efforts to improve with China, Russia, India, Japan and other big power relations.With the Commonwealth countries to maintain the traditional ties, maintain and expand in developing countries.Active participation in global affairs, and maintain a strong national defense forces, stressed that free trade.Strengthen environmental protection, human rights, sustainable development and other issues of international cooperation.Human rights issue as the core of its foreign policy.Relations with China: January 1950, the British Government announced that recognizes the People's Republic.June 17, 1954, the Sino-British agreement reached in the exchange agent.March 13, 1972, the two countries signed an upgraded to the ambassadorial level diplomatic relations between the joint communiques.September 1982, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, as the first serving British prime minister's visit to China.December 1984, Margaret Thatcher, to revisit China, the two countries signed on the Hong Kong issue in the Sino-British Joint Declaration.October 1986, Britain's Queen Elizabeth II on a state visit to China.This is the history of the first British head of state to visit China.July 1, 1997, the Sino-British handover of the successful completion of the handover.In 1998, the Government of the successful exchange of visits between the two countries, and established a comprehensive partnership.October 1999, President Jiang Zemin on a state visit to Britain, this is the first Chinese President to visit Britain.May 2004, Premier Wen Jiabao for an official visit to Britain, the two countries issued a joint statement.September 2005, Prime Minister Tony Blair visited China.November 2005, President Hu Jintao on a state visit to Britain.Reproduced:

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland geographical coordinates (Google maps satellite map Landmark) finishing date: (2006/9/30 10:59:00)
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